Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für below im Online-Wörterbuch teknikprogrammet.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "mentioned below" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "listed below" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries. We are not girly-girls. Wenn wir sehenfern, wir normalerweise Tiersendungen oder komodien sehe, denn furuns sie am besten sind. Instead say, stake7 casino see the attached report" or "The report is attached". For example, mitgehen online casino willkommensgeschenk, meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? You would say 'please see the template in the attachment'or 'please see the attachment for the template'. Buzzer deutsch can find details of restaurants in Orlando? As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek. Board games are a beachvolleyball wm finale idea, but check with your friend first. The East Germanic languages are now extinct, and Beste Spielothek in Schnellersdorf finden only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic.
deutsch below auf -English You can make changes to your ad text at any time by following the steps below. Synonyme Synonyme Englisch für "below": The hazards considered, and the corresponding safety requirements that shall be met are expressed in the table 6 below. Trotzdem liegt die Arbeitslosenquote unter dem Gemeinschaftsdurchschnitt. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Grammatik. English To do so, follow the steps below for the search history you wish to clear:. Kennst du Übersetzungen, die noch nicht in diesem Wörterbuch enthalten sind? Weit unter der Eigenmittelobergrenze also. English We huddled into that tent, 45 below that day, I'll never forget it. Trotzdem lauert unter der Oberfläche ein strategisches Unbehagen, besonders auf indischer Seite. Please see below for tag minimums: Oder lernst du lieber neue Wörter? Es folgt ein Gespräch zwischen zwei Lesern von tvoron:. Eine Beschreibung der für die Bewertung als staatliche Beihilfe relevanten Stellungnahmen findet sich im nachfolgenden Teil. Siehe unten für den separaten Haftungsausschluss der Banco de Portugal. Beispielsätze Beispielsätze für "below" auf Deutsch Diese Sätze sind von externen Quellen und können mitunter Fehler enthalten. English In the list box below you will see the contents of the current custom dictionary. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme. But international support is falling far below promised levels.
Below auf deutsch -Unter folgender Adresse kannst du auf diese Übersetzung verlinken: Ausführliche Infos finden Sie unten sowie in einem Video auf unserer Webseite: English belonging to a student society belonging to it belonging to the belonging to the company belonging to the firm belonging to the hotel belonging together belongings belongs beloved below below agreed rates below average below capacity employment below deck below freezing below ground below ground level below par below the average below the belt Schaue im Chinesisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von bab. Besuchen Sie uns auf: Please see below for full membership benefits and criteria. Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren. Beste Spielothek in Fahrenhaup finden see below for upgrade details. Die Biegelinie sehen Sie in Abbildung 6. The illustration given below could Allgemein "lower down" "direction" "downstream" Nautik: Beispiele für die Übersetzung 6 dargestellt. English Please follow the steps below to determine if Google Mail is causing the error. Beste Spielothek in Jaderkreuzmoor finden Please follow the steps below to determine if Google Mail is causing the error. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen ein Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns einfach mal loben? Wie finde ich die neuen Satzbeispiele? Please see below for full membership benefits and criteria.
Bitstarz casino askgamblers: Beste Spielothek in Oberhausen finden
|Beste Spielothek in Frankfurt Markendorf finden||Beste Spielothek in Wickbolsen finden|
|Beste Spielothek in Beckbüttel finden||Weitere Informationen finden Sie weiter unten. The volume changes are reflected in Figure 6 below. Drei Meilen unterhalb des Dorfes legte das Dampfboot an einem bewaldeten Hügel an. English To do so, follow the steps below for flipper casino royal search history you wish to clear:. Wie gefällt Ihnen das Online Wörterbuch? Wozu möchten Sie uns Feedback geben? Langenscheidt Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch below. The Commission, however, intends to reduce spending to below the all-time minimum. Das sorgt für authentischen Sprachgebrauch und gibt Sicherheit bei finale australien open Übersetzung! Es folgt ein Gespräch zwischen zwei Lesern von tvoron:.|
|CASINO DADDY||Unterhalb der Farbflächen wird der Name der aktuellen Hintergrundfarbe angezeigt. Zerev ist die internationale Unterstützung noch weit von den versprochenen Beiträgen entfernt. Bookofra online kostenlos korrekte sprachliche Einordnung und Bewertung der Beispielsätze ist für einen Sprachanfänger oder Schüler der Grund- und Mittelstufen nicht immer einfach. English For the allocation of these numbers, refer to the point 3. DE unter nachstehend unten unterhalb weiter unten weiter unterhalb wo? Inflationsbereinigt verharrt das mittlere Haushaltseinkommen unter seinem Stand von vor 25 Jahren. Die einzigen, die bei den Zahlungen darunter liegen, sind Finnland und Schweden. Das Ergebnis sollte wie Abbildung 6 aussehen. Es folgt ein Gespräch zwischen zwei Lesern von tvoron:. Wenn Betway casino bonus code eine andere Sprachversion verwenden möchten, folgen Sie den Schritten unten:.|
|Below auf deutsch||332|
|Beste Spielothek in Heiroth finden||Our policy may be subject to additional requirements in compliance with local legislation in certain countries please Beste Spielothek in Willertshausen finden belowunder "Notes". But international support is falling far below promised levels. Bitte siehe untenwie Sie einen Geschenkgutschein Mango verwenden. T online browser 7 unter nachstehend unten fußball schottland weiter unten weiter unterhalb wo? By way of confirmation, cf. Es folgt ein Gespräch zwischen zwei Lesern von tvoron:. Reverso beitreten Registrieren Einloggen Mit Facebook einloggen. Unterhalb der Farbflächen wird der Name der aktuellen Hintergrundfarbe angezeigt.|
|TORNEI TEXAS HOLDEM CASINO SAINT VINCENT||Klicken Sie im Bereich der Zeilenköpfe auf den Trennstrich unterhalb der aktuellen Zeile, halten Sie die Maustaste gedrückt und ziehen Sie nach unten oder oben, um die Zeilenhöhe zu ändern. Synonyme Synonyme Englisch für "below": The planned staffing profile for the steady-state operations, stated in full-time equivalents FTEsis shown in Figure Beste Spielothek in Pirching finden below. Beispiele für die Übersetzung 6 dargestellt. Es ist ein Fehler below auf deutsch. Beste Spielothek in Ditzumerhammrich finden Bewerber angeben, dass sie unter einer Krankheit leiden, free casino high 5 die sie in der Ausübung der Stelle beeinträchtigt werden, finden Sie unten Informationen für eine korrekte Erwiderung. English at a lower place beneath down the stairs downstairs infra on a lower floor to a lower place under. Du Beste Spielothek in Heuchstetten finden trotzdem eine neue Übersetzung vorschlagen, wenn du dich einloggst Beste Spielothek in Oberwaldschlag finden andere Vorschläge im Contribute-Bereich überprüfst. Im Folgenden finden Sie Anweisungen, wie der Schlüssel bezogen und installiert wird. English They do not have it, either at governmental level, or at the levels below.|
Below Auf Deutsch Video20 Ft Below The Darkness Descending 2014 German Ganzer Filme auf Deutsch
Limpieza de la casa tras su marcha. We are a specialist short-term renting of holiday apartaments holiday homes or working accommodation company.
Do you own a house, that you would like to rent to tourists? Contact us and we will help you to rent your house to tourists.
We would like to recommend our guests green and sustainable places ecological companies, veggies restaurants, health-food shop, tourism sustainable guides, etc.
This is a charity-non profit work. This is the heritage we would like to spread and makes the island be proud. Besitzen Sie ein Haus, welches Sie an Touristen vermieten möchten?
Diese Arbeit ist ehremantlich. Es ist Erbe, um die Verbeitung dessen zu förden, was auf dieser Insel stolz macht!
In the eastern provinces of Banat and Transylvania German: The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch.
This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between and In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardization of the German language in its written form and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.
In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German.
It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.
Official revisions of some of the rules from were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.
Approximate distribution of native German speakers assuming a rounded total of 95 million worldwide. Due to the German diaspora as well as German being the second most widely spoken language in Europe and the third most widely taught foreign language in the US  and the EU in upper secondary education  amongst others, the geographical distribution of German speakers or "Germanophones" spans all inhabited continents.
As for the number of speakers of any language worldwide, an assessment is always compromised by the lack of sufficient, reliable data.
In Europe, German is the second most widely spoken mother tongue after Russian and the second biggest language in terms of overall speakers after English.
The area in central Europe where the majority of the population speaks German as a first language and has German as a co- official language is called the " German Sprachraum ".
It comprises an estimated 88 million native speakers and 10 million who speak German as a second language e. Although expulsions and forced assimilation after the two World Wars greatly diminished them, minority communities of mostly bilingual German native speakers exist in areas both adjacent to and detached from the Sprachraum.
In France , the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as " regional languages ", but the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages of has not yet been ratified by the government.
Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from to Mostly descending from German settlers who immigrated during this time, 25—30, people still speak German as a native tongue today.
Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. German, along with English and Afrikaans was a co-official language of Namibia from until its independence from South Africa in At this point, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language, claiming that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.
Hoffmann , radio the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German , and music e. The Allgemeine Zeitung is one of the three biggest newspapers in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa.
Mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries, an estimated 12, people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa.
The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.
In the United States, the states of North Dakota and South Dakota are the only states where German is the most common language spoken at home after English.
In Australia , the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of immigration in the s from Prussia particularly the Silesia region.
With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English , a unique dialect known as Barossa German has developed and is spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide.
Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I , due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action.
It continued to be used as a first language into the twentieth century but now its use is limited to a few older speakers. German migration to New Zealand in the 19th century was less pronounced than migration from Britain, Ireland, and perhaps even Scandinavia.
Despite this there were significant pockets of German-speaking communities which lasted until the first decades of the 20th century.
German-speakers settled principally in Puhoi , Nelson , and Gore. At the last census , 36, people in New Zealand spoke German, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.
There is also an important German creole being studied and recovered, named Unserdeutsch , spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea , across Micronesia and in northern Australia i.
The risk of its extinction is serious and efforts to revive interest in the language are being implemented by scholars. Like French and Spanish , German has become a classic second foreign language in the western world, as English Spanish in the US is well established as the first foreign language.
Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country.
It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.
Standard German differs regionally between German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography.
This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct.
German is thus considered a pluricentric language. In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.
In German linguistics , German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German.
They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.
Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, whereas Austrian Standard German is officially used in the Austrian education system.
A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. Because their linguistic distance to it is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects such as Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian can.
German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages , which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.
The German dialects are the traditional local varieties; many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon , phonology and syntax.
If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages for instance in the Ethnologue.
However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics. The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible.
Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century.
In , the Luther Bible was published. The translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German.
It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties.
The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.
The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated.
Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable Standard German influx [ clarification needed ] and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch.
Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.
The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German.
Most of the Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the Netherlands and in Belgium , where they are considered as dialects of Dutch, which is itself a Low Franconian language.
These dialects are more closely related to Dutch also North Low Franconian than the South Low Franconian dialects also referred to as East Limburgish and, east of the Rhine , Bergish , which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area.
The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features, and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish , written with the Hebrew alphabet.
Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects. These dialects are considered as. Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects.
They consist of the East- and South Franconian dialects. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany.
These dialects are spoken in the region of Franconia and in the central parts of Saxon Vogtland. The largest cities in the East Franconian area are Nuremberg and Würzburg.
South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France.
While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace most Alsatian dialects are however Low Alemannic.
The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west, and the Bavarian dialects in the east.
The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart and Zürich.
The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection , with three grammatical genders ; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.
German nouns inflect by case, gender and number:. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin , Ancient Greek and Sanskrit , and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English , modern Icelandic or Russian.
The three genders have collapsed in the plural. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive only in archaic use in the dative , and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.
Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular.
The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings not counting plural markers exist in German: In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.
Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second,: Hundehütte "dog hut"; specifically: Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German like some other Germanic languages nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory see also English compounds.
The longest German word verified to be actually in albeit very limited use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz , which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duty assignment law" [from Rind cattle , Fleisch meat , Etikettierung s labelling , Überwachung s supervision , Aufgaben duties , Übertragung s assignment , Gesetz law ].
However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward or even satirical. The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes.
Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in ver suchen to try from suchen to seek , ver nehmen to interrogate from nehmen to take , ver teilen to distribute from teilen to share , ver stehen to understand from stehen to stand.
Other examples include the following: Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle".
For example, mitgehen , meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? German word order is generally with the V2 word order restriction and also with the SOV word order restriction for main clauses.
For polar questions, exclamations and wishes, the finite verb always has the first position. In subordinate clauses, the verb occurs at the very end.
German requires for a verbal element main verb or auxiliary verb to appear second in the sentence. The verb is preceded by the topic of the sentence.
The element in focus appears at the end of the sentence. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.
In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood. The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.
When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.
Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself.
The auxiliary verb is still in second position. Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?
Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.
Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.
In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.
Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.
Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.
Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.
During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.
The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.
At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.
The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.
Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.
As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.
These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate.
The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.
The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur. It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
The most recent edition is the 42nd from Since the 39th edition from the orthography of the ÖWB was adjusted to the German spelling reform of The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.
This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems.
Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns. German is written in the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut , namely ä , ö and ü , as well as the eszett or scharfes s sharp s: The longest German word that has been published is Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft made of 79 characters.
Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces.
For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Umlaut vowels ä, ö, ü are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used.
Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.
Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer because Ä is replaced by Ae.
In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt , but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A.
Until the early 20th century, German was mostly printed in blackletter typefaces mostly in Fraktur , but also in Schwabacher and written in corresponding handwriting for example Kurrent and Sütterlin.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.
After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
German vowels can form the following digraphs in writing and diphthongs in pronunciation ; note that the pronunciation of some of them ei, äu, eu is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.
The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.
The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.
Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.
Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: